Soap Opera Testing

What is it?

Soap Opera Testing is a dramatised method used for testing your business processes. You might want to try it for a super-condensed and thorough way of highlighting bugs. And because it’s fun. Embrace the drama.

Origins

Cem Kaner has been writting about scenario testing for a long time. He published this article on ‘an intro to scenario testing’ and Hans Buwalda presented on ‘soap opera testing’ nearly 20 years ago 😱. They’re both serious tester dudes and this stuff is legit.

How Does it Work?

You might start with a brain storming session with your sales or customer support team. Ask them for stories about things your users have done. Not just the ordinary things, but also some off-the-wall and crazy things. What you’re looking for is drama.

It might help to sketch out the story briefly. Write down steps that are essential, or those that you might make a mistake on. Cem Kaner gives some practical tips here, although you definitely don’t need to read all 500 pages.

Kaner’s Introduction to Scenario Testing is a bit more bite sized and describes the five main points your scenario needs. Namely that it’s a story, it’s credible, it will test the program in a complex way, the results are easy to evaluate and stakeholders will see the point of fixing the bugs identified.

A scenario is a hypothetical story, used to help a person think through a complex problem or system.

Cem Kaner

You then run a test exercise using the characters and scenarios from a soap opera, and analyse the results. You can do this as many times as you want, with as many different scenarios.

Use whatever soap opera you like. We make no judgements. Although fair to say that if you use A Country Practice, you’re showing your age and nobody will know what you’re talking about.

Let’s Soap Up

Here’s an example of Soap Opera Testing using The Simpsons. The program being tested is a mortgage loan application.

Let’s say Homer Simpson wins the lottery, and decides to apply for a second mortgage, for an investment property. Just as the paperwork is about to go through, Grampa Simpson burns his apartment down. Homer decides to help him out with the cost of a rental, meaning he needs to change the deposit he’ll pay on his investment property. Homer signs the amended paperwork but he signs it incorrectly.

Then his application is declined because even winning the lottery doesn’t give you a good credit rating overnight. The Simpsons’ next ‘diddly-door’ neighbour Ned Flanders offers to help Homer out. He’ll put in the 10% deposit. His own house is 90% paid off so it’s no big deal to him, and it will help Homer get around his bad credit rating. The Simpsons’ house is 50% paid off, and they’re putting down a 90% deposit, using Homer’s lottery winnings, and leaving some bowling money left over.

They’re about to go to the bank and lodge the paperwork, when Homer’s half-brother Herbert Powell hears about the lottery win. Boy has he got the mother of all investment options for Homer – nuclear powered cars! Homer can get in on the action if he puts some cash into building a prototype. So Homer has to syphon off yet more funds from the deposit he’ll make on his investment property, and change the paperwork again.

Whew, put all that through the system and see where you get to. If you think of more variables as you go, you can add them to the scenario and run the test again.

What We’ve Tested

A whole heap of stuff.

We tested rejections, with Homer’s first application, and signature recognition when he goofed up his name.

We tested multiple applications made by the same person, with an adjustment in the deposit amount made after the application had gone through.

We tested how to register multiple assets with different mortgage amounts, and a different percentage of ownership. What’s more, the owners of the properties and mortgage were not residents at the same address.

The applicants had different credit ratings, which affected the different algorithms in their application process. And they weren’t related, and didn’t intend living together at the property, which was for investment only.

Here’s a snappy list:

  • Rejections
  • Editing documents
  • Multiple applications from the same person
  • Adjusting deposits
  • Multiple assets with different mortgages
  • Different percentage ownership
  • Different credit ratings
  • Unrelated co-owners
  • Investment property applications

It only takes a little imagination to try to find many more bugs using a soap opera scenario, versus the standard “works as expected” response we’d have gotten from the test-case walk through.

Here’s a three minute recap in a lightning presentation I gave at the Selenium Conference in India.

You can access the slide deck here

have fun with Soap Opera Testing and tell me about your scenarios – add a comment below.

This article came into existence with the help of Fiona Stocker, a freelance writer and editor from the beautiful Tamar Valley in Tasmania

Visit Fiona’s website here

Self Care and Spoon theory

I was having a chat to colleague recently about mental health. I actively blog about my struggles with depression and we got talking about spoon theory and self care. I thought I would share some of my practices that help me keep on top of this part of my health.

Spoon Theory

spoons

Spoon theory is a metaphor for dealing with chronic illness/mental health issues or disability. When we are healthy and functioning we have plenty of spoons to deal with life and we hardly notice when they are used. Sometimes we might be in situations where our spoon supply is diminished and mundane tasks we took for granted now become very hard to do. I find not sleeping well is a quick way to reduce the number of spoons I have to work with the next day. Sometimes starting a new project or being in a new situation can deplete more spoons than expected.

Sometimes you might hear people say, “I’m out of spoons” as a safe way to signal to the people around them that they are overwhelmed and need help getting out of their current situation.

Self Care

I have a harsh internal self critique that is always trying to get me down. When I’m tired it’s harder to ignore that voice in my head. One way to combat this is to practice gratefulness. Some people like to keep a daily journal and at the end of the day write down 5 things they are grateful for. This why a nightly prayer (if you are Christian) is great practice for improving your mood. You spend some time in your day reflecting on the good things. I keep a blog post that is a, “letter to self, when you are feeling low this is all the awesome stuff you are doing”. Some people practice mindfulness or meditation.

Meditation can help you to recognise your triggers from an internal thought process and can help you to not get emotionally caught up with the thoughts. Your mileage with meditation can vary and I don’t recommend trying to introduce a new habit without some support in place first. I try to meditate for 20 minutes a day but don’t beat myself up if I miss a day.

What do you do for self care?

Let’s talk about bias

We are all biased in someway. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing. Biases can be considered the mental shortcuts we take to help us make sense of the world. Unfortunately these biases can make it harder for some people to progress in life or to experience the same opportunities offered to others.

Fatness and bias

There are so many elements of bias and discrimination out there. I will run the risk of coming across as insensitive if I talk about something I don’t full comprehend. So I will talk about bias from my own perspective, I once was really obese. Like BMI of 47 category 3 morbidly obese, I’m now at a borderline overweight/obese BMI of 30:

Levels of obesity

Our society has a large amount of bias against fat people. You only have to watch the latest news article about the obesity epidemic to see how the media shames headless fat people. As a society we are viscerally disgusted with fat people; we think they are lazy, un motivated, poorly educated and the scum of the earth.

Behold the headless fat person you are disgusted over:

Discrimination

Fat people get paid less, are offered less leadership opportunities and are publicly shamed. Often women experience more discrimination because of their weight compared to men.

“As long as we are all terrified of becoming fat, this will go on. Yes, we are terrified. Because we all know how fat people are treated in this society.”

https://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2017/aug/30/demoted-dismissed-weight-size-ceiling-work-discrimination

Mindset change

When I was fatter and I saw another fat person I would think to myself, “well, at least I’m not that fat”. I would wrap myself up in my own irrational thinking and find comfort in not feeling, “that fat”. Now that I’m smaller my mindset has changed. I am completely disgusted with how much my mindset has changed. I now think the same nasty knee jerk reaction thoughts as everyone else, “eww, gross, how can they let themselves get that big?”. I try to balance that with empathy but I hate how easy these thoughts come now.

I changed one aspect of my appearance

The weight loss surgery (gastric sleeve) I had probably has nearly paid for itself in just the increased earning potential gained from losing weight. On top of the improvement of quality of life later on down the track too. I can’t say for certain but the more I read about bias the more it seems like it was worth it. Other parts of my appearance are a little more challenging to alter. Most people aren’t as lucky as me to be in a situation where they have the financial gains to go through what I did. Most fat people are poor.

What will change?

Probably nothing, your career is basically screwed if you are an overweight older black women working in tech. How many more biases can I add there? Not that I’m trying to be grim but the long term prospects don’t look good. Some aspects of our appearance are more within our control than others but many aren’t.

When was the last time you were disgusted by headless fat bodies in the news?

Becoming a Quality coach – course overview

I had the pleasure of doing Anne-Marie’s becoming a quality coach course today which was organised by Test-Ed. If you are looking to transition to a quality coach role it’s worth keeping this course on your radar. Anne-Marie is a well renowned expert in software testing and quality engineering. I had the pleasure of working for Anne-Marie at Tyro.

What is Quality Coaching?

First page of sketchnotes for the course – what is coaching?

How is a quality coaching different to a test lead? It depends on what your team wants out of a quality coach role but here is an example job description from Deputy’s principal quality coach role:

What You Will Do:

  • You will provide the guidance, inspiration and motivation for our amazing engineers to be better testers.
  • Help create a high-quality testing culture
  • Push the merits and benefits of TDD
  • Visualize testing and quality
  • Communicate with product and technical stakeholders
  • Be a customer advocate

How You Will Do It:

  • You have a combination of in-depth knowledge of Quality Assurance and Software Engineering principles and practices
  • You command the skill to communicate clearly and effectively.
  • You work directly with Engineers, Quality Coaches, Product Managers, and Discipline Heads to ensure the high quality of our software and practices.

What You Will Need:

  • 7+ years software engineering / testing experience
  • Strong understanding of QA processes and concepts.
  • Proven coaching experience in a development team with examples of how you’ve made a significant impact to their testing capabilities
  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills

Some questions you might ask?

Some people thing that coaching is all about knowing when to ask the right questions. The coaching habit by Michael Bungay Stanier would have you beleive that all you need to coach someone is 7 questions.

  • What’s on your mind?
  • And what else? (repeated a few times)
  • What’s the real challenge here for you?
  • What do you want?
  • How can I help? or What do you want from me?
  • If you say yes to this, what must you say no to?
  • What was most useful or most valuable here for you?

I think is only applies to one on one coaching, it doesn’t scale well to coaching a small team of developers and it definitely doesn’t scale to giving a lecture to 100’s of people or online. I think a good teacher is a good coach and also knows when someone needs a bit of mentoring too instead.

Models for Coaching

We discussed 2 different models you can use for coaching. Goal and ADKAR. We also discussed what does quality mean to us and expanded on a few definitions.

What does ADKAR stand for?

  1. Awareness: Leading people to see the need for change.
  2. Desire: Instilling the desire for change.
  3. Knowledge: Providing employees with the information or skills they need to achieve change.
  4. Ability: Applying knowledge and skills to bring about change.
  5. Reinforcement: Making sure that people continue to use the new methods.

We also briefly discussed Kent Beck’s talk on 3X (Explore, Expand & Extract.

Sketchnotes from Kent Beck’s 3X talk

Coaching Software Testing

Test leads will need a bunch of skillsets to do well in coaching. We also used role play to practice our newly developed coaching skills.

Running Software Testing Workshops

When running a coaching session there could be a bunch of behaviours you come across in your testers or developers that are mental barriers to trying something new. Your developers might say:

  • Testing isn’t my responsibility
  • I don’t have time for testing
  • Testing is boring
  • What if I miss a bug?
  • All testing should be automated

You testers might respond with mindsets like:

  • If I help developers do their testing, how will I prove my value?
  • I’m not technical, I can’t help with code reviews
  • I might loose my job if I raise bugs earlier
  • 100% coverage is achievable

Summary

It was a good day of engaged learning. I’m not really working in a context where I can put a lot of these coaching methods into practice though. How would you come up with antidotes to these mindset problems in your team?

Orders of Communication

Have you ever wanted to ask a large group of people their thoughts on a particular topic? Maybe you want to know what the 2000+ members of the Sydney Testers meetup group want to get out of the group? Was your first thought to create a poll or send out a survey? I bet you that channel didn’t work out so well for you because I tried it.

Here is my list of orders of communication to help you get the results you need when trying to get data to help influence your decisions.

Face to Face

Nothing beats face to face communication. The only draw back with this method is it’s hard to scale to reach a mass market. However the best way to get lots of feedback in a face to face style would be to collect opinions at a physical event. The low-tech solution here would be to hand out a paper survey at a meetup event and collect the results as people leave. BOOM, 30-120 responses based on attendance and it’s all useful data that’s not from some random scrub off the internet. There’s a little bit of manual data entry at the end but the results justify the return on investment.

You see this method play out at conferences for lead generation. A company will have a stall displaying their products and services. They might tempt people in with a competition or survey. “Give us your email for your chance to win” type of deal. This is leveraging face to face communication.

Do you want to settle a deal or convince your boss to give you a raise? Have a face to face meeting in a cosy cafe. It helps build up that environment of trust.

Video or Phone call

If you can’t meet someone in person, arranging a phone call or video chat should be your next point of call. As a millennial I’ve had a mild social phobia of talking on the phone that I’ve had to overcome. I highly recommend getting comfortable with getting on the phone. It will really help with collaborating with any task. As our workforce gets more global this will become more of the way we get work done.

Direct Message

I created this survey for gathering feedback from Sydney testers members last year. However I’ve only received 41 responses so far. I’ve done some pretty thorough marketing for this survey and the results just don’t justify the effort. I did:

  • Sent an email through the MeetUp app asking for feedback
  • Created a discussion on meetup asking for feedback
  • Asked every tester in Sydney who’s a level 1 connection on my LinkedIn to provide feedback via personal direct messages
  • Asked the committee to share the survey
  • Ask every new Tester who I connect with on LinkedIn to provide feedback

The feedback has been really useful but it’s been a lot of work. Work that I’m not getting paid to do either. So I don’t see it as a useful use of my time.

Social Media

Social Media is the ultimate spray and prey method. You put stuff on the internet hoping for people to stumble upon it and react to it. Posting just once hardly is effective. You need to be consistent with this and constantly posting. This is also a lot of work.

For example we’ve had this poll on our Sydney Testers meetup page since 2014, yet we only have 20 responses.

Most of the results so far are around job opportunities, networking, learning tech skills and remaining relevant in my career. If you run a tech meetup, your members probably want very similar things.

Conclusion

I prefer face to face communication above all others. I think meetup sucks as a platform for trying to engage people outside of the “turn up to this event” type of engagement. Do you dis-agree with what I’ve put here? How so?

Lessons in Sales: Naked Wines

Naked wines is a new wine distributor in the Australian Market. Some of their sales are a little sneaky but I personally don’t mind. This is a story of how I’ve excused their sneakiness and bought more product.

It started with a survey

We all love a survey, especially if it’s a personality test. I first found out about Naked Wines through a facebook marketing campaign which was basically, “Become a wine genius in 52 seconds” quiz. I found it an interesting approach. I’ve seen Naked be promoted on socials a bit since then and seems they’ve grown quiet rapidly.

Then there was a voucher

In my email one day I found a $50 voucher for naked wines and they selling a starter box for $99. This was the temptation I needed to try their product. Trying a dozen wines for $49 is not a big stretch for me, a non wine drinker who prefers my craft beer. However when I made this purchase they automatically signed me up to the “Angels” program. It’s like angel investors but it’s a wine subscription. You pay $40 per month, it can be banked up and used whenever you like. I guess it was part of the T&C’s I agreed to without reading. #MyBad.

Joining the Angels

When I got my first delivery, I got some information about the angels program. It looked like I was like the 14 thousandth person on the queue and I thought it would take forever so I didn’t care too much about it. However one month later I’m now an angel. I feel like the queue is artificially created to be large to drive up excitement for it or something. However out of my first $40 subscription payment, Naked matched my $40 contribution. This definitely helped grease my wheels. I ended up purchasing more wine and I’ve only drank half a bottle from the first order. Gah I have so much wine now. Good thing I can disperse it through the events I run for Sydney Testers.

Angels = good cash flow

The angels program is a really clever sales tactic. It means the business has a guaranteed cash flow every month and they don’t have to worry so much about people not coming back to the platform. They’ve now signed up to coming back. When I did a back of the envelope calculation based on the email they sent me when I joined the Angels, they had nearly $4 million per month in guaranteed cash flow. That would really help make warehouse management easier.

More transperancy

I would have liked to have seen a bit more obviousness that I was signing up for the angel program when I bought my first box, But other than that I think Naked helped grease the wheels enough for me to get over that grief.

P.S. I really like the printed booklet they sent with their first box. It was high quality. Also their branding is top notch. The Aussie post office seems to think they are doing a good job too.

#100DaysOfLinkedIn Challenge

I have nearly 1400 contacts on LinkedIn, a lot of them I’ve never spoken too. So I thought I would go on a 100 days of LinkedIn challenge to see if I could add value to every one in my network who I haven’t spoken to recently. I’m calling it #100DaysOfLinkedIn. I’m already up to day 9.

Sales + Marketing = Growth

Marketing Campaign

This is fundamentally a marketing campaign. I’m not too sure what success looks like for it yet but I’m already receiving positive feedback. It is more marketing than sales as I’m attempting to gauge who are good leads on my LinkedIn. I am trying to sell Michael Bolton’s Rapid Software Testing course in Sydney and Brisbane and I’ve sent a few people towards my communication for testers workshop. However getting sales is not the point of this campaign. Adding value is and brand awareness is.

Side note: maybe a way to measure engagement is to monitor the traffic to my blog and replies to the messages?

Keeping Track

LinkedIn allows you to export your connections. I exported my connections into a spreadsheet and labelled this spreadsheet with the date of the export. I’ve added a few extra columns such as “Last Contacted” and “Notes”. Some of the notes I’ve collected so far is if the personal is a fan or a lead.

Download your data from the privacy settings menu

Have a message template

I’m reaching out with people with an a message template. However I’ll tweak this on a case by case basis and add/remove different things based on some details from their profile. Here is my basic template:


Hi {Name},

How are you? What are some of the challenges facing you these days?

I’m doing a #100DaysOfLinkedIn challenged where I try to add value to everyone in my network over 100 days. I’m up to day 9 so far.

I enjoy teaching and I’ve got a bunch of projects on the go. From encouraging people to become more technical https://samanthaconnelly.com/becoming-more-technical/ to teaching kids Lego robotics https://samanthaconnelly.com/robotics-tutorials/the-mexican-wave-project/

I’ve been experimenting with different CV formats over the years, if you’d like a bit of inspiration you can check them out here: https://samanthaconnelly.com/evolution-of-my-cv/

Is there anything I can help you with?
Regards,

Sam

If they are a tester or developer in Sydney or Brisbane, I’ll include a section about Michael Bolton too.

Re posting Job ads

While I do this challenge I will re post job ads that I see that I believe will add value to testers in Australia that I know. I will also share profiles of people who have posted that they are looking and if I know they are active in the community.

Video Updates

While doing this campaign I’m experimenting with the video updates for LinkedIn. I want to see if it’s a useful tool for engagement. I’ve only done one video post so far and it’s already been positive, but I think I will do weekly updates with the progress.

Can I help you with anything?

I finish the message with a call to action, “how can I help you?”. With this campaign I’m focusing on adding value so it’s important for me to drive home this point. Overall I don’t think this approach is too “salesy” and I’m looking forward to seeing how it plays out. A few days in and I’m already seeing positive results.

What would you change in this campaign?

Awesome stuff you’ve done this year and things you are working towards

Letter to self,

For when you are feeling low, use this list to remind yourself of how much awesome stuff you’ve done. #HumbleBrag

Events I’ve helped organise/presented at

Sydney Testers

Other events

Live Exploratory testing

Started doing live testing on twitch

Blogs I’ve published

Meetups I’ve attended

Books I’ve read

Conferences I’ve spoken at

Other Awesome stuff

Will create courses for

  • Ministry of Testing
  • Mobile testing on Udemy

Started the following courses

Written a book

Next Career move

I recently asked myself, “where would I like to take my career?”. This is a blog post on that reflection. From maintaining tech skills to improving my coaching. Here are the things that are important to me.

Keeping tech skills up to date

I’ve been doing software testing now for over 7 years and even though I come from a Computer Science and Engineering background, I’m finding people too easily put me in the box of “non technical manual tester” based on my previous roles. If I do not work hard at maintaining my tech credibility I see a risk that I will be stuck with the “non technical” label for the foreseeable future. I also don’t have the self confidence in my skills or interest to learn how to build automation frameworks in from the ground up. So how am I maintaining this skill? I’m working towards the following:

  • working towards a certified ethical hacker
  • Building a mobile app as a side project
  • Attending developer focused conferences

Certified Ethical Hacker

I’m working through Troy Hunt’s and Dale Meredith’s, certified ethical hacking course on Pluralsight. I find security testing more interesting than automation testing and there’s a huge demand for technical cyber security skills. The course is hard to do, there’s 80 hours worth of lecture material and it requires a commitment to regular learning to maintain it.

Wearable app side project

I’ve already spoken at conferences about my example poo tracking wearable app to talk about ideas like privacy by design. I haven’t even built the app yet and I’m using it to teach people. I’m interested in teaching myself mobile app development and how to build basic API’s. I even have someone who’s offered to help build this. Eventually I’d like to use this app to help teach people about different elements of testing.

Attending developer conferences

I’ve always enjoyed attending dev focused conferences. I always learn more compared to software testing focused conferences because it is out of my domain of expertise. I will continue to prioritise these conferences over software testing conferences this year.

Any new role that I start has to help me with maintaining my tech skills first and foremost. This is number one priority I will look at when assessing new roles.

Improve my Teaching/Coaching

I have always loved teaching. I was the kid in school that all my friends asked for help with maths questions. I’ve been tutoring my peers for as long as I remember. I’ve had my tutoring side business for almost as long as I’ve been testing. If teaching wasn’t see as a bit of a dead end low respected job, I would have studied it at uni. I do this stuff for free, that’s how much I love doing this. Being a Quality Coach at Campaign Monitor showed me that there is demand for people to teach software testing skills. In a few years I’d love to be running my company where teaching technical testing skills is my focus. I’ve been running robotics workshops for kids since my uni days. Any job that allows me to practice on the company dollar is a plus in my mind.

Speaking at Conferences

I’ve spoken at 14 tech conferences in the last 3 years. I enjoy getting up on stage. Any role that encourages me to do more of this is awesome in my books. It relates to the enjoying teaching, however getting up on stage is a little different to tutoring/coaching a person one on one. There is an element of entertainment with getting up on stage. The putting on a persona and pretending to be something more that what you feel inside.

All the data

In all of my previous roles, I’ve always enjoyed doing a deep dive into data analytics. From creating dashboard for event tracking testing to helping product understand how our customers were using our apps. I enjoy it all. I’m considering doing a Masters in Statistics in a few years when I’m more on top of my finances.

A bit of job stability

I went through the motions of job hunting 3 times last year. I do not want to do this again and again. Also meeting new people is mentally draining. A bit of stability with my work environment would be awesome. Or at least some having planned turbulence. I hadn’t had much luck with full time positions last year. Maybe this year I do all contracting? I’m still considering full time though.

Have a good culture

I care deeply about having a good social connection with the team I’m working with. I need to feel like I can bring an authentic version of myself to work. That means being vulnerable enough to talk about my struggles with depression and to be comfortable bring my quirkiness to work. It comes down to psychological safety.

Reasonable salary

I’m not solely motivated by money but having a consistent budget compared to my previous role is important for my financial security. I do feel like I’m getting at the expensive end for being a software tester and I can’t even compete with off shore testers in regard to pricing.

Practising a bit of sales and marketing

I struggle with selling testing as a craft where you want skilled people doing it for you. I’m glad I’ve never had to pitch my skills to CEO’s before getting hired as a tester. Someone else has already been convinced of the value testers bring. However with shrinking test teams I think the testers that will thrive in the future will have their pitch just perfect. Any testers who knows how they add value to others and remains relevant probably won’t struggle as much as those testers who don’t. I’m practising marketing through things like my blog and running Sydney Testers. Getting up on stage is related to marketing too. I’m also going to right a book this year as a marketing exercise.

I’m not interested in

Management; this feels like a clear way to let you tech skills go rusty and it’s becoming harder for managers to promote themselves as relevant in today’s agile/self driving teams.

Automation testing; if I had confidence in my developer skills, I’d be building products NOT building frameworks. It’s rare that I find some who can clearly articulate why they want automation in a way that really drives me towards it. It feels over emphasised in today’s tech crazy market place. I’ll happily pair with a developer to help drive this but I cannot sit in a corner and motivate myself to work on it when there are some many other fascinating elements of the product to learn about. Like accessibility or security.

Summary

I’ve come to believe that my next ideal role is some kind of developer advocate role. Tech will be the focus, but that blend of marketing, community engagement, technical writing and speaking at conferences is appealing to me.

What are you looking for in your career? Do you have a career coach to help you move in the right direction?

Factfulness – Book Review

I finished reading Factfulness by Hans Rosling on my commute this morning. Even Bill Gates recommends giving this book a read. Hans goes over 10 biases that cause people to feel like to world is much worse than what it actually is. The book is easy to read and I like the stories of Hans questioning his own biases. There is also this 4 minute read summary of the book too.

You should watch this TED talk by Hans back in 2007:

The book is an extended version of this amazing stats talk

The 10 Dramatic Instances

Image source

Hans goes through 10 biases that cause us to over dramatise the world we live in. he kicks off the book with a questionnaire that helps highlight the incorrect world view we all hold in our heads. Alot of these instinct feed into our own internal fears and make them even louder. E.G. the fear of a rapidly changing tech scene that we can’t keep up with.

Population growth will not explode

It is already starting to even out. The upper estimate now is around 11 billion people by 2100. I really like this visualisation by Hans: